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Care must be taken in trimming of these claws be- roadway is constructed by excavating to a depth of cause Dutch rules will not work unless the dorsal wall is 12 in discount 200 mg extra super viagra overnight delivery impotence zargan. The thickening of the white line may placed in the trench 200mg extra super viagra sale erectile dysfunction urethral medication, covered with geotextile fabric, be more widely distributed around its entirety, resulting and the remainder of the excavation filled with in laterally flared claws. The laneway remains dry on the Chapter 11 • Musculoskeletal Disorders 483 surface, stands up very well to traffic, and cows sufficient condition for the development of the most move comfortably along. The severity of prob- and cow behavior appear to modify the final expression lems in housed dairy cattle is dependent on manure of the insult caused to the laminae and corium of the removal practices, which may influence both the claws caused by ruminal acidosis. On the It is very common in housed cattle with visible le- other hand, there are few data on the consequences sions present in the majority of cattle, whether within the claws of diet manipulations. One reference indi- Manson and Leaver, Livesey and Fleming, and Peterse et cates a lower incidence of lameness as a result of in- al describe the incidence of laminitis lesions in small terdigital dermatitis on slatted floors than solid groups of cattle in experimental herds with diet treat- floors. Pain and lameness are not present in most ments that were either high or low concentrate feeding obviously infected cattle. In each study there were more urine predisposes to infection and influences the cases of lameness in the higher concentrate feeding severity of problems. The groups fed low to moderate levels of con- terdigital dermatitis is secondary either to skin (and centrate were affected with some lesions of laminitis possibly hoof sole) hypertrophy or to fissures in the despite attempts to minimize the occurrence of ruminal heel horn caused by the bacterial elastases that are acidosis. The author participated in a trial of rubber ver- capable of cleaving the beta-pleated keratin of the sus concrete flooring in free stall housing. The main environmental risk factors seem to ment was flawed by the cows available to populate the be manure contact with the skin and anaerobic two barns; the groups were not well matched. Digital dermatitis is an infectious disease of the skin quences of standing on concrete are considered by many affecting cattle older than about 6 months of age to be very important in the development of lesions of anywhere from the vicinity of the dewclaws distally. Pressure exerted on specific portions of the The causal organism(s) have not been conclusively claw may contribute to the observed vascular-derived le- identified, but response to therapy with antibacterial sions of either hemorrhage or necrosis. Cattle claws are drugs and the consistent observation of spirochetes commonly shaped in less than desirable forms. Dry conditions as may occur in and that routine trimming can prevent many of the dry lot or some pasture conditions seem to prevent more severe cases of lameness. It is of interest that the spread of the infection but do not influence the installation of rubber by feed alleys, in parlor holding severity in already infected cattle. Control is with areas, along alleys connecting pens to the milking parlor, footbathing or spraying with the antibiotics (oxy) and most recently complete alley covering with rubber tetracycline or lincomycin. Thus far there are no data on tic solutions including formalin are used successfully the effects of these changes on lameness, but our un- in footbaths for control. Environmental Risk Factors for Claw Lameness incidence in bullocks housed on slatted floors, 4. Similarly a cross-sectional survey of Dutch focused on the nutritional management of cattle to dairy calves between 2. Ruminal more sole hemorrhages in heifers housed on slatted acidosis is probably a necessary but not independently floors than in straw yards. Subordinate problems and 11 control herds was made during 2 years animals are also more likely to stand in the alley alto- by Dr. There was a correlation between the stall surfaces, either Interpretation of this behavior is that it provides a re- concrete or with a rubber mat, and the occurrence of duction in the danger posed by more dominant cattle.

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