By L. Mason. University of Guam.
Te body of the three-year-old victim had been found in a nearby creek on a Tuesday morn- ing purchase 100 mg kamagra chewable with visa erectile dysfunction and pregnancy, the third day afer her Saturday night disappearance buy discount kamagra chewable 100mg on line impotence urinary. Michael West, examined Christine Jackson on May 9, 1992, and wrote in his May 14, 1992, report that nineteen human bitemarks were found on the body, and that “the bitemarks found on the body of Christina [sic] Jackson are peri-mortem in nature. West later testifed that “indeed and without doubt” and that “to a reasonable degree of medical certainty” the teeth of Mr. Brewer made fve of those marks, and that it was “highly con- sistent and probable that the other fourteen bite mark patterns were also inficted by Brewer” (West in original trial transcript in Brewer v. Souviron, testifed that the patterned injuries on the body were not human bites at all but were patterns that were made by other means. Tere could be fsh activity or turtle activity or who—God knows what” (Souviron in original trial transcript in Brewer v. Neither profle included Brewer but did point to another man, Justin Albert Johnson, who, ironically, had also been an early suspect in Jackson’s murder. Johnson later confessed to killing Christine Jackson and another young girl who had been similarly sexually assaulted and murdered. In that earlier case, Levon Brooks had also been wrongly convicted based, in part, on Dr. He testifed that “it could be no one else but Levon Brooks that bit this girl’s arm. How can an “expert” ignore the circum- stances and disregard the crime scene information? How can patterns with no class or individual characteristics of human teeth in patterned injuries found on a body that had been in water for more than two days be judged to be human bitemarks? To then associate those patterns to a suspect with any level of certainty seems unthinkable. Perhaps, an understanding of alter- native explanations to human teeth causing the marks should have been considered more seriously, especially in a case in which human bitemarks seemed unlikely. Souviron provided viable and testable theories for possible alternatives—the marks may have come from activity by insects, fsh, turtles, or other sources not readily apparent. Wallace, suggested that crayfsh, which were very abundant in the stream where the victim was found, were likely suspects and could have lef such marks on the victim’s body through normal feeding activity. Incredibly, the odontologist in this case associated only the upper inci- sor teeth to all of the “bitemarks”; there were no lower teeth marks identi- fed. West performed a simple test to determine if the patterns on the skin were in fact bitemarks of the type Bitemarks 329 Figure 14. An incision through a mark will reveal if there is the subepidermal hemorrhage ofen associated with human bitemarks (Figures 14. Alternatively, either could have harvested tissue from one or more of the patterned injuries. West had a history of simi- larly outrageous fndings in other cases (Keko, Harrison, Maxwell). He had identifed shoe marks on human skin and knife handle rivets on the hand of a murder suspect. He had made dramatic, overreaching statements in court, including conclusions to absolute certainty, “indeed and without doubt,” and incredible estimates of his own error rates, “something less than my savior, Jesus Christ. Tat the liberty, and indeed the life, of a human being is ofen in question and may depend upon the quality of experts’ opinions is of paramount importance and cannot be overemphasized.
The variability (noise) is used measure of variability 100 mg kamagra chewable with mastercard tobacco causes erectile dysfunction, is the square root of usually calculated as the standard deviation buy cheap kamagra chewable 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction and pump. Example: Suppose 10 hypertensive subjects are The advantage of using the standard deviation over treated with a novel antihypertensive drug. The the variance is that it is measured with the same subjects’ blood pressure is measured at 8:00 a. The mean does not represent the just prior to the administration of the drug, and then response to treatment of any particular individual. It does, though, give us an idea of the magnitude of The ﬁrst and the second rows of the table give the the response to treatment produced by the drug. The third row gives the If the drug is ineffective, then there should be no change () in diastolic pressure (value in row 1 systematic change in blood pressure measurements minus the value in row 2). The mean, given in the taken 1 h after treatment as compared to pretreat- last column, is 12. The observed have discussed earlier, we cannot assess its signiﬁ- mean change of 12. Indeed, the values of range from 4to that a sample of 10 numbers drawn at random from 33, a substantial range. To assess ’s variability, we a set of numbers with mean zero (in our example, Subject Mean 1 Before treatment 102 78 95 86 109 107 100 86 96 92 95. It seems that mere knowledge that the subject is being treated for its condition often produces a measurable favorable response (Bok, 1974; Gribbin, 1981). A high placebo A statistical model consists of a set of assumptions response will tend to mask the response of the about the nature of the data to be collected in the experimental drug. Since placebo is rarely used trial and about the interrelationships among var- outside the clinical research setting, some people ious variables. These assumptions must be speciﬁc argue that the comparison with placebo tends to enough that they could be expressed by a set of show lower response rates for the drug than would mathematical expressions and equations. Thus, goes the For example: In a placebo-controlled clinical argument, the placebo-controlled trial puts the test trial for testing a new analgesic for treatment of drug at a disadvantage. The counter argument is migraine headaches, the key efﬁcacy variable is that what one sees in the clinic is perhaps the the number of subjects whose headache is combination of the placebo effect plus the drug’s eliminated within 1 h of treatment. A statistical biological effect, and therefore, establishing the model appropriate for this situation is as residual effect of the drug over its inherent placebo follows: effect should be the true objective of the trial. Let denote the probability that a subject treated Whatever the case might be, the placebo effect with a drug will have their headache disappear 1 h invariably results in decrease in the signal-to- after treatment, following an episode of migraine noise ratio. If the responses of different subjects are to select subjects whose placebo response is low independent of each other, this probability can be or nil. One way of accomplishing this is by treating expressed as prospective subjects with placebo for some time prior to randomization. Patients whose response Prob no of responses during this screening phase is high or very variable are then disqualiﬁed from participating in the trial. The statistical model is the mathematical frame- The data collected during the trial will pro- work in which the statistician operates. It provides vide information about d and p, enabling the For example, for 005, then Z1005196 that the probability statement about the conﬁdence and Z2005196. It is a Now, by substituting the deﬁnition of in theoretical probability pertaining to a generic inter- expression (2) with 21 and val calculated from a sample following the steps we rearranging terms, the inequality 1 2 described above. Thus, if we could repeat the can be re-written as experiment many times, each time calculating a conﬁdence interval in the way we have just done, we should expect approximately 95% of these 4 intervals to contain the true mean effect. Of course, when calculating a conﬁdence interval Now, let us take a closer look at expression (4). The from a sample, there is no way to tell whether or value at the center, , is the population mean, which not the interval contains the parameter it is estimat- is the unknown quantity we are estimating.
The potential for the head injury to affect the person’s ability to recall the details of the accident or assault can assume considerable importance purchase kamagra chewable 100mg online erectile dysfunction age 29. Memory loss for events occurring around the time of the injury is likely to occur whenever there has been diffuse brain damage of a degree sufficient to cause concussion 100mg kamagra chewable free shipping best male erectile dysfunction pills over the counter. In most cases, loss of consciousness will accompany the head injury, but this is not invariable, and it is possible for patients to display both retrograde and posttraumatic amnesia without losing consciousness (88). Retrograde amnesia refers to the loss of memory for events that immedi- ately precede the head injury. Individuals can often indicate with fair preci- sion the last event that they can clearly recollect. In road traffic accidents, the journey may be recalled up to a specific point, which allows an estimate of the Care of Detainees 227 extent of the pretraumatic gap to be made. Such amnesia is usually short in duration and can usually be counted in minutes or hours rather than days or weeks. Indeed, when the retrograde amnesia lasts for a long time the explana- tion often results from hysteria. Retrograde amnesia may render a suspect unfit for interview immedi- ately after the head injury, but the doctor should be aware that the extent of the amnesia can change with time. At first, it may be long, but it can then shrink over the next days and weeks, eventually ending up as a matter of minutes only. Recovery from retrograde amnesia tends to occur in chrono- logical order, with items in the distant past recovering first. By contrast, posttraumatic amnesia refers to the period from the moment of the injury until normal continuous memory returns, the length of the amne- sia providing a good index, albeit in retrospect, of the severity of the brain damage (92). It should be emphasized that the amnesia only ends when the person becomes able to give a clear and consecutive account of what is hap- pening around him or her. Sometimes “islands of memory” will be exhib- ited, but these should not be taken as indicating the end of the amnesia. There is a similar danger in underestimating the duration of posttraumatic amnesia in those suspects who, although aware of things going on around them, are unable to recall these events at a later date (88). Several behaviors may be exhibited during the period of posttraumatic amnesia, ranging from apparent normality to obvious confusion. However, in general, behavior is unremarkable, and the doctor may be easily misled into believing that there is nothing amiss. The individuals themselves are usually unaware of the abnormal memory at the time and can give superficial or made- up explanations for any defects that are discovered. Migraine Migraine is a common and sometimes incapacitating disorder, affecting approx 20% of women and 15% of men at some time in their lives (94). Anxiety and irrita- bility are common early in the attack and are often followed by drowsiness and lethargy. Cerebration is often slowed with poor concentration, and there may be marked impairment of memory (88). Detainees who claim that they suffered a migraine attack at or around the time of the alleged offense should be questioned closely about any cogni- tive impairment during previous attacks. However, it should be recognized that the pattern of any such impairment can change from attack to attack in the same person. Hypothyroidism A detainee who is being adequately treated for myxedema poses no par- ticular problem for the physician assessing fitness for interview. However, an individual with undiagnosed or undertreated hypothyroidism may exhibit mental manifestations that are as important as the physical.
In terms of health and illness kamagra chewable 100mg otc causes of erectile dysfunction in 60s, if healthiness is an individual‘s normal state buy kamagra chewable 100mg free shipping erectile dysfunction 30 years old, then any onset of illness will be interpreted as a problem and the individual will be motivated to re-establish their state of health (i. These stages have been applied to health using the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour (see Figure 3. Once the individual has received information about the possibility of illness through these channels, according to theories of problem solving, the individual is then moti- vated to return to a state of ‘problem-free’ normality. According to Leventhal, the problem can be given meaning by accessing the individual’s illness cognitions. Therefore, the symptoms and social messages will contribute towards the development of illness cognitions, which will be constructed according to the following dimensions: identity, cause, consequences, time line, cure/ control. These cognitive representations of the ‘problem’ will give the problem meaning and will enable the individual to develop and consider suitable coping strategies. However, a cognitive representation is not the only consequence of symptom percep- tion and social messages. The identiﬁcation of the problem of illness will also result in changes in emotional state. For example, perceiving the symptom of pain and receiving the social message that this pain may be related to coronary heart disease may result in anxiety. Therefore, any coping strategies have to relate to both the illness cognitions and the emotional state of the individual. Stage 2: Coping The next stage in the self-regulatory model is the development and identiﬁcation of suitable coping strategies. Coping can take many forms, which will be discussed in detail later in this chapter and in Chapter 11. However, two broad categories of coping have been deﬁned that incorporate the multitude of other coping strategies: approach coping (e. When faced with the problem of illness, the individual will therefore develop coping strategies in an attempt to return to a state of healthy normality. This involves individuals evalu- ating the eﬀectiveness of the coping strategy and determining whether to continue with this strategy or whether to opt for an alternative one. This process is regarded as self-regulatory because the three components of the model (interpretation, coping, appraisal) interrelate in order to maintain the status quo (i. Therefore, if the individual’s normal state (health) is disrupted (by illness), the model proposes that the individual is motivated to return the balance back to normality. For example: s Symptom perception may result in an emotional shift, that may exacerbate the perception of symptoms (e. The aim of the study was to test directly elements of Leventhal’s self-regulatory model and to examine whether the way an individual makes sense of their illness (their illness repre- sentation) and the way they cope with their illness (their coping strategies) relates to their level of functioning (the outcome measure). Methodology Subjects A total of 520 members of the Australian and New Zealand Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Society were sent an invitation to take part in the study, of whom 308 returned the consent forms and were sent a questionnaire. These subjects ranged in age from 18 to 81, 61 per cent were married, 55 per cent had received tertiary education and the mean length of illness was 10. Design The study involved a cross-sectional design with all subjects completing a questionnaire once. Measures Subjects were sent a questionnaire consisting of the following measures: 1 The Illness Perception Questionnaire. This questionnaire measured illness representa- tions and included items reﬂecting the following aspects of illness representations: s Identity: This consisted of a set of 12 core symptoms (e. Subjects were asked to rate each symptom according to how often they experienced them from ‘never’ to ‘all the time’. Results The relationship between components of illness representations The results showed that a strong illness identity was related to a belief in serious con- sequences and a more chronic time line (e.
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