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She parative human care theory and research order viagra plus 400 mg on line erectile dysfunction and pregnancy, and she is completed her PhD in social and cultural anthro- founder of the worldwide Transcultural Nursing pology at the University of Washington proven 400 mg viagra plus impotence synonym. Leininger’s initial nursing education Leininger was dean and professor of nursing at the was at St. Her persistent lead- of master degree programs in nursing at American ership has made transcultural nursing and human and overseas institutions. Leininger is a fellow care central to nursing and respected as formal and distinguished living legend of the American areas of study and practice. She is professor emeritus of “Margaret Mead of the health ﬁeld” and the “New the College of Nursing at Wayne State University Nightingale” by colleagues and students. Some of her well- known books include Basic Psychiatric Concepts in One of the most signiﬁcant and unique contribu- Nursing (Leininger & Hoﬂing, 1960); Caring: An tions of Dr. Leininger was the development of her Essential Human Need (1981); Care: The Essence of Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory. Nursing and Health (1984); Care: Discovery and She introduced this theory in the early 1960s to Uses in Clinical and Community Nursing (1988); provide culturally congruent and competent care Care: Ethical and Moral Dimensions of Care (Leininger, 1991a, 1995). She believed that tran- (1990d); and Culture Care Diversity and Universal- scultural nursing care could provide meaningful ity: A Theory of Nursing (1991). Nursing and Anthropology: Two Worlds to cultural nursing concepts, principles, theories, and Blend (1970) was the ﬁrst book to bring together research-based knowledge to guide, challenge, and nursing and anthropology. This was a signiﬁcant Concepts, Theories, and Practices (1978) was the ﬁrst and new contribution to nursing and has been an book on transcultural nursing. The Qualitative important means to open the door to advance new Research Methods in Nursing (1985) was the ﬁrst scientiﬁc and humanistic dimensions of caring for qualitative research methods book in nursing. The use of Her published books and articles cover ﬁve this culture care theory has greatly expanded nurs- decades of cumulative transcultural nursing and ings’ knowledge base about people of diverse human care with many cultures throughout the cultures in the world. Leininger initiated the Journal of The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Transcultural Nursing, which was the ﬁrst transcul- Universality was developed in order to establish tural nursing journal in the world. Leininger conducted the ﬁrst ﬁeld study of in discovery and use of the knowledge in transcul- the Gadsup of the Eastern Highlands of New tural nursing practices. Leininger envisioned that nurses would need ied approximately 25 Western and non-Western transcultural knowledge and practices to func- cultures. Leininger led nurses to use qualitative tion with people of diverse cultures worldwide ethnonursing research methods and developed the (Leininger, 1970, 1978). In 1987, she initiated the idea of worldwide certiﬁcation of nurses prepared in transcultural nursing in order to Caring for people of many different protect and respect the cultural needs and lifeways cultures was a critical and esssential of people of diverse cultures. Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality 311 that caring for people of many different cultures edge and experiences were woefully inadequate. Instead, nursing and covered a wealth of potentially valuable knowledge medicine were focused on using new medical tech- that would be helpful within a nursing perspective. They were focused To care for children of diverse cultures and link on studying biomedical diseases and symptoms. It was This part of the chapter presents an overview knowledge that went beyond the traditional physi- of the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and cal and emotional needs of clients. Leininger was Universality, along with its purpose, goals, assump- concerned whether it would be possible to incorpo- tions, theoretical tenets, predicted hunches, and re- rate such new knowledge, given the traditional lated general features of the theory.
Fingerprinting is probably the only other technique used with greater frequency buy generic viagra plus 400mg online psychogenic erectile dysfunction icd-9, but as we know purchase viagra plus 400mg on line newest erectile dysfunction drugs, the sof tissue of the extremities does not resist the ravages of time and environment like the enamel and dentin of human teeth. So, in terms of rapidity, degree of certainty, cost-efectiveness, and applicability to a wide range of intact, decomposing, or skeletonized remains, forensic odontology has been the identifcation method of choice. Miniscule amounts of biological evidence can be individualized and the results quantifed using statistics so staggering that the courts and the public have come to expect the same sort of return on all types of forensic analyses. With this new technology comes an increased risk to personal privacy that actually crosses generations, as well as the fear of genetic discrimination in employment and insurance sectors. Te nucleotide base adenine (A) always pairs with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs with cytosine (C); the end result is a long molecule composed of two antiparallel strands in a twisted ladder shape that is called a double helix. Te impact of Astbury’s discovery on forensic science was the realization that we inherit the code to produce our characteristics but, strictly speaking, not the characteristics themselves. Tus, by uncovering the code that exists within a biological sample, we have a quantifable and unique basis for indi- vidualization. And by focusing on the fundamental code, we remove the subjectivity that arises from analyzing the characteristics, which are the end product of the code and may be signifcantly impacted by unpredictable environmental forces. We receive half of our genetic material from our mothers and half from our fathers, but because of the shufing around of genes (called indepen- dent assortment) prior to the creation of the egg and sperm, our parents con- tribute a diferent allotment of their genetic material to each ofspring. Te exception to the rule regarding a unique chromosomal constitution for every person is the occurrence of identical twins. Twenty-two pairs of chromo- somes are autosomes and the remaining pair consists of two sex-determining chromosomes, which are grouped as X,X (female) or X,Y (male). Forensic scientists may choose to analyze autosomes for individualization and sex chromosomes for gender determination. Specifc analysis of the Y chromosome is an increasingly common practice in sexual assault cases. Furthermore, this genome is inherited from the mother only, and thus is not unique to the individual. Te evidence will be unpackaged in a biosafety hood, inventoried, reconciled with the accompanying chain-of-custody documents, and assigned a laboratory track- ing number. Tis tracking number is usually an alphanumeric composition that may include a case designator, as well as a sample or specimen designator. Regardless of how the tracking number is derived, it will be the unique iden- tifer used for that sample throughout laboratory processing and reporting. Afer accessioning, the evidence is documented photographically and repack- aged with the submitter’s identifying information and the laboratory tracking number. Evidence that does not undergo immediate analysis is sealed with the date and analyst’s initials and placed in secure cold storage at –20°C. Tis particular approach is amenable to automation and can provide increased efciency when large numbers of samples require high-throughput robotic processing9–13 (Figure 7. A subsequent chemiluminescent (light-producing) reaction is used to expose x-ray flm. During the second or annealing step the temperature is decreased, usually in the range of 55 to 72°C. In the third step, the temperature is elevated only slightly to 72 to 75°C and extension begins. Tis step-wise replication of the template strand starts at one primer and continues nucleotide by nucleotide until the ending primer is reached. Tis gel may be poured into an external slab or run inside a single or multiple capillaries (an array).
Role-playing decreases anxiety and provides a feeling of security by arming the client with a plan of action with which to respond in an appropriate manner when a stressful situation occurs discount viagra plus 400mg free shipping erectile dysfunction drugs at cvs. Ensure that client and family are fully knowledgeable re- garding the physiology of the change in health status and its necessity for optimal wellness buy generic viagra plus 400 mg line erectile dysfunction jacksonville florida. Encourage them to ask ques- tions, and provide printed material explaining the change to which they may refer following discharge. Help client identify resources within the community from which he or she may seek assistance in adapting to the change in health status. Encourage client to keep follow-up appointments with physician or to call phy- sician’s ofﬁce prior to follow-up date if problems or concerns arise. Client is able to make independent decisions regarding life- style considering change in health status. Client is able to express hope for the future with consider- ation of change in health status. Psychiatric Home Nursing Care ● 355 Possible Etiologies (“related to”) Alterations in mental status Inability to engage in satisfying personal relationships Unaccepted social values Unaccepted social behavior Inadequate personal resources Immature interests Alterations in physical appearance Altered state of wellness Deﬁning Characteristics (“evidenced by”) Expresses feelings of aloneness imposed by others Expresses feelings of rejection Developmentally inappropriate interests Inability to meet expectations of others Insecurity in public Absence of supportive signiﬁcant other(s) Projects hostility Withdrawn; uncommunicative Seeks to be alone Preoccupation with own thoughts Sad, dull affect Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Client will verbalize willingness to be involved with others. Long-term Goal Client will participate in interactions with others at level of abil- ity or desire. Be with the client to offer support during activities that may be frightening or difﬁcult for him or her. Most individuals keep the same style of relationship development that they had in the past. Help the client identify present relationships that are satisfying and activities that he or she considers interesting. Only the cli- ent knows what he or she truly likes, and these personal pref- erences will facilitate success in reversing social isolation. Risk Factors Caregiver not developmentally ready for caregiver role Inadequate physical environment for providing care Unpredictable illness course or instability in the care receiver’s health Psychological or cognitive problems in care receiver Presence of abuse or violence Past history of poor relationship between caregiver and care receiver Marginal caregiver’s coping patterns Lack of respite and recreation for caregiver Addiction or codependency Caregiver’s competing role commitments Illness severity of the care receiver Duration of caregiving required Family/caregiver isolation Goals/Objectives Short-term Goal Caregivers will verbalize understanding of ways to facilitate the caregiver role. Long-term Goal Caregivers will demonstrate effective problem-solving skills and develop adaptive coping mechanisms to regain equilibrium. Ensure that caregivers are aware of available community sup- port systems from which they can seek assistance when re- quired. Examples include respite care services, day treatment centers, and adult day-care centers. Caregivers require relief from the pressures and strain of providing 24-hour care for their loved one. Studies have shown that abuse arises out of caregiving situations that place overwhelming stress on the caregivers. Release of these emotions can serve to prevent psychopathol- ogy, such as depression or psychophysiological disorders, from occurring. Encourage participation in support groups composed of members with similar life situations. American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities—(800) 424-3688 c. Alzheimer’s Association—(800) 272-3900 Hearing others who are experiencing the same problems discuss ways in which they have coped may help the caregiver adopt more adaptive strategies. Individuals who are experi- encing similar life situations provide empathy and support for each other. Caregivers demonstrate adaptive coping strategies for deal- ing with stress of caregiver role. Bellﬁeld and Catalano (2009) have stated: Forensic nursing is an emerging ﬁeld that forms an alliance between nursing, law enforcement, and the forensic sciences. Forensic nurses provide a continuum of care to victims and their families beginning in the emergency room or crime scene and lead- ing to participation in the criminal investigation and the courts of law (p.
Cohort effects in cognitive development of children as revealed by cross-sectional sequences order viagra plus 400 mg amex erectile dysfunction causes in young men. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health order viagra plus 400mg erectile dysfunction 42. Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta- analysis. Some historical and scientific issues related to research on emotional intelligence. Regulating the interpersonal self: Strategic self-regulation for coping with rejection sensitivity. Predicting cognitive control from preschool to late adolescence and young adulthood. Willpower in a cognitive-affective processing system: The dynamics of delay of gratification. Explain how very high and very low intelligence is defined and what it means to have them. Define stereotype threat and explain how it might influence scores on intelligence tests. Most people in Western cultures tend to agree with the idea that intelligence is an important personality variable that should be admired in those who have it. But people from Eastern cultures tend to place less emphasis on individual intelligence and are more likely to view intelligence as reflecting wisdom and the desire to improve the society as a whole rather than only themselves (Baral & Das, 2004; Sternberg,  2007). And in some cultures, such as the United States, it is seen as unfair and prejudicial to argue, even at a scholarly conference, that men and women might have different abilities in domains such as math and science and that these differences might be caused by genetics (even though, as we have seen, a great deal of intelligence is determined by genetics). In short, although psychological tests accurately measure intelligence, it is cultures that interpret the meanings of those tests and determine how people with differing levels of intelligence are treated. In a normal distribution, the bulk of the scores fall toward the middle, with many fewer scores falling at the extremes. These sex differences mean that about 20% more men than women fall in the extreme (very smart or very dull) ends of the distribution (Johnson,  Carothers, & Deary, 2009). Boys are about five times more likely to be diagnosed with the  reading disability dyslexia than are girls (Halpern, 1992), and are also more likely to be classified as mentally retarded. About 1% of the United States population, most of them males, fulfill the criteria for mental retardation, but some children who are diagnosed as mentally retarded lose the classification as they get older and better learn to function in society. Mental retardation is divided into four categories: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. One cause of mental retardation is Down syndrome, a chromosomal disorder leading to mental retardation caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. The incidence of Down syndrome is estimated at 1 per 800 to 1,000 births, although its prevalence rises sharply in those born to older mothers. People with Down syndrome typically exhibit a distinctive pattern of physical features, including a flat nose, upwardly slanted eyes, a protruding tongue, and a short neck. Societal attitudes toward individuals with mental retardation have changed over the past decades. We no longer use terms such as “moron,‖ “idiot,‖ or “imbecile‖ to describe these people, although these were the official psychological terms used to describe degrees of retardation in the past. Supreme Court ruled that the execution of people with mental retardation is “cruel and unusual  punishment,‖ thereby ending this practice (Atkins v. It is often assumed that schoolchildren who are labeled as “gifted‖ may have adjustment problems that make it more difficult for them to create social relationships. This study found, first, that these students were not unhealthy or poorly adjusted but rather were above average in physical health and were taller and heavier than individuals in Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The students also had above average social relationships—for instance,  being less likely to divorce than the average person (Seagoe, 1975).
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